Terminology


globus construction corrected

ANALEMMA

The analemma is a figure 8 looking piece (sometimes also just oval), commonly visible in the pacific oceans. It allows precise calculations of mean time (the time by which we set our clocks) by accounting for the tilt of the earth’s axis. It also marks the solstices and equinoxes.

AXIS

The rod or shaft upon which the globe rotates

CALOTTE (polar calottes)

Polar calottes are mostly seen on European globes. Instead of the paper gores covering the poles, two round pieces of paper (calottes) cover the poles.

CARTOUCHE

A label on a globe, identifying manufacturer and its location, model and sometimes the year of production.

CELESTIAL GLOBE

A mounted Sphere, displaying the stars and zodiacs

CRADLE MOUNT

A mounting type which allows for the globe to be removed from its base for close-up viewing. The orb is without an axis and may rotate unrestricted in any direction.

DEGREE

A unit of measurement of a globe, 1/360th of the circumference of a circle.

DIAMETER

A line passing through the center of a sphere, measuring the diameter.

EASTERN HEMISPHERE

Generally referred to as the half of the earth which includes Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia and nearby ocean areas.

EQUATOR

The great circle around the earth midway between the poles, dividing earth into Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

EQUATORIAL BAND

Band applied to the equator to cover the seam of machine pressed globes.

EQUINOXES

The two times of the year, usually about March 21 and September 23, when the sun’s rays are perpendicular to the Equator, day and night are of equal length everywhere.

GLOBE

The only true world map, made on a ball or sphere in the shape of the earth.

Also called sphere or orb.

GORES

Paper sections upon which the globe map is printed. Common amount of gores per globe is 12, with 2 polar calottes on most European models.

GREENWICH MERIDIAN

see Prime Meridian

GRID

The network of meridians and parallels on a globe

HEMISPHERE

Any half of the earth’s surface

HORIZON BAND OR RING

A ring attached to some globe stands to represent the celestial horizon, a great circle which divides the globe into hemispheres; often calibrated in degrees, miles, hours, points of the compass, days of the month, and signs of the zodiac.

INCLINATION OF THE EARTH’S AXIS

The tilt of the earth’s axis 23 1/2 degrees from a perpendicular to the plane of its orbit.

INTERNATIONAL COLORING SCHEME

The contour layer coloring method of showing elevations on maps and globes, in which shades of green are used for lower elevations, shades of yellow for intermediate elevations, and shades of orange and brown for higher elevations.

INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE

The arbitrary line where the day is to begin and end. Except for variations for local convenience, the line follows the 180th meridian.

LATITUDE & LONGITUDE (see additional info below)

Latitude and Longitude help establish points on the globe and have been used as a navigational system for location. They are the horizontal and vertical lines covering a terrestrial globe. Combined they are called a grid.

LATITUDE

Horizontal lines on most terrestrial globes, with the equator being the central line in the middle. All points north of the equator are north latitude, south of the equator South latitude. Also identifies the zones such as the artic circle and tropical zone.

LEGEND

Identifications of symbols and details on maps such as railways, flight routes aso

LONGITUDE

Vertical lines on the globe. The prime meridian (through Greenwich) is at 0 with all other meridians being east or west of it in 15 degree intervals.

MERIDIAN (HALF MERIDIAN / FULL MERIDIAN)

Metal band either half or full around a globe, attached to the globe on both poles and connected to the base. Often identifying degrees. Also see Longitude

MOUNTING

What the globe /sphere is attached to and contains it. Many different mounts have been provided . See Plain Mount , Cradle mount, Stationary mount, Hanging or Suspended Mount.

NORTHERN HEMISPHERE

The half of the earth’s surface north of the Equator.

ORB

Another word for globe or sphere

OVERLAY

As in overlay of the cartouche. When a label is applied over the original cartouche.

PARALLELS OF LATITUDE

East-west lines around the globe which are parallel to the Equator.

PLAIN MOUNT

A globe mounted onto the base without any form of meridian.

PRIME MERIDIAN (Greenwich Time)

The zero meridian from which east and west longitude are measured, passing through Greenwich. The 00 longitude (the Prime Meridian) is also from which time around the world is calculated.

PROJECTION

The grid or network of parallels and meridians upon which a flat map is drawn.

ROTATION

The turning of the earth on its axis.

SCALE

The numerical relationship between an actual distance on the earth and the distance which represents it on a map.

SOLSTICES

The times of the year, about June 21 and December 22, when the sun’s rays reach their northern and southern: limits at the tropic lines

SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE

The half of the earth’s surface south of the Equator.

SPHERE

Another word for round ball or globe. Also see Orb

STATIONARY MOUNT

Mounting that does not allow for the sphere and full meridian to be removed from the base.

TERRESTRIAL GLOBE

A mounted Sphere, displaying the world.

TIME DIAL

Thin metal circle to be found on top of most 20th century US Globes, divided into 24 parts, imprinted or engraved with the hours of day and night. Allows calculating the time difference between various locations on the globe.

WESTERN HEMISPHERE

Generally referred to as the half of the earth which includes North America and South America.

ZODIAC

An imaginary belt in the heavens, extending 80 on either side of the ecliptic and divided into 12 parts, each represented by a symbol.